The Artificial Intelligence community sought to understand human intelligence by building computer programs, which exhibited intelligent behavior. Intelligence was perceived to be a problem solving ability. Most human problems appeared to have reasoned, rather than mathematical, solutions. The diagnosis of a disease could hardly be calculated. If a patient had a group of symptoms, then she had a particular disease. But, such reasoning required prior knowledge. The programs needed to have the “knowledge” that the disease exhibited a particular group of symptoms. For the AI community, that vague knowledge residing in the minds of “Experts” was superior to text book knowledge. So they called the programs, which solved such problems, Expert Systems.
Expert Systems managed goal oriented problem solving tasks including diagnosis, planning, scheduling, configuration and design. One method of knowledge representation was through “If, then…” rules. When the “If” part of a rule was satisfied, then the “Then” part of the rule was concluded. These became rule based Expert Systems. But knowledge was sometimes factual and at other times, vague. Factual knowledge had clear cause to effect relationships, where clear conclusions could be drawn from concrete rules. Pain was one symptom of a disease. If the disease always exhibited pain, then pain pointed to the disease. But vague and judgmental knowledge was called heuristic knowledge. It was more of an art. The pain symptom could not mechanically point to diseases, which occasionally exhibited pain. Uncertainty did not yield concrete answers.
The AI community tried to solve this problem by suggesting a statistical, or heuristic analysis of uncertainty. The possibilities were represented by real numbers or by sets of real-valued vectors. The vectors were evaluated by means of different “fuzzy” concepts. The components of the measurements were listed, giving the basis of the numerical values. Variations were combined, using methods for computing combination of variances. The combined uncertainty and its components were expressed in the form of “standard deviations.” Uncertainty was given a mathematical expression, which was hardly useful in the diagnosis of a disease.
The human mind did not compute mathematical relationships to assess uncertainty. The mind knew that a particular symptom pointed to a possibility, because it used intuition, a process of elimination, to instantly identify patterns. Vague information was powerfully useful to an elimination process, since they eliminated many other possibilities. If the patient lacked pain, all diseases, which always exhibited pain, could be eliminated. Diseases, which sometimes exhibited pain were retained. Further symptoms helped identification from a greatly reduced database. A selection was easier from a smaller group. Uncertainty could be powerfully useful for an elimination process.
Intuition was an algorithm, which evaluated the whole database, eliminating every context that did not fit. This algorithm has powered Expert Systems which acted speedily to recognize a disease, identify a case law or diagnose the problems of a complex machine. It was instant, holistic, and logical. If several parallel answers could be presented, as in the multiple parameters of a power plant, recognition was instant. For the mind, where millions of parameters were simultaneously presented, real time pattern recognition was practical. And elimination was the key, which could conclusively handle uncertainty, without resort to abstruse calculations.
A Dremel is a high speed power tool. Consumers love the Dremel because it is very light weight and compact. It is a versatile power tool that is commonly used for wood work and crafts. While the Dremel is classified as a power tool, it has some unusual uses over the years. In the 1940’s, the Dremel was used by the Department of Defense to help create the first atomic bombs. During the war, the Dremel was commonly used to reduce the amount of scar tissue from wounds. It has been used to remove tattoos and even by dentists to shape dentures.
Today, the Dremel is the number one rotary tool in the world. That is quite an accomplishment with millions of them to choose from. The Dremel has over 200 accessories offered, giving it versatility. The possibilities of what you can do with a Dremel are endless.
There are many different models of the Dremel tool. The 400 Series offers high speeds as well as great quality. It is the most versatile of the Dremel series. The 300 Series is a precision tool. It is very compact and has several speeds to choose from. The Digital Rotary Dremel is very advanced. It features a LCD readout and an electronic feedback control. This Dremel model is commonly used by the science field.
The original Dremel tool, the MultiPro is great for crafts and for doing hobbies. This is the top selling Dremel model, with various speeds. The two speed MultiPro gives you the option of a high or low speed for better control. The Single Speed MultiPro Dremel is great for those who only want one speed, commonly for someone who plans to use the Dremel tool for the same type of project again and again. The Cordless MultiPro is very convenient as is the Cordless MiniMite.
The fastest Dremel yet is the Lithium-ion Cordless model. This is the fastest and strongest cordless rotary tool available on the entire market. That is quite an accomplishment for the Dremel Corporation. The battery will stay charged for up to two years at a time. A very fun specialty Dremel is the orange and black pumpkin carving Halloween Dremel. It comes with an assortment of templates to help you make fun and creative jack-o-lanterns.
Dremel tools are very light weight so you can take them anywhere. You can also use them for lengths of time without the power tool feeling uncomfortable. There are two dials on the dual speed Dremel models. This allows you to control the speed with one and the power with the other. You will get free replacement brushes for the life of your Dremel tools as well as a five year warranty.
With so many Dremel accessories to choose from, it is a good idea for you to research the right accessories for the particular project you are doing as well as for the Dremel power tool you own. You can save money buy purchasing a Dremel power tool kit. This comes with a carrying case, the Dremel power tool, and a wide assortment of the various accessories you may choose to use for that particular power tool.
A Dremel is the perfect rotary power tool to add to your collection. They are very versatile and durable. You can choose from the various accessories to get even more use out of your Dremel power tool. This is a brand you can trust to be very reliable. The warranty says a great deal about the dedication this manufacturer has for providing the consumer with a trustworthy power tool.
Power saws are used for small and large projects. Some of them are lightweight and other projects involve heavy objects. Power saws are available in a variety of sizes and different volumes of power to ensure you can always find the right power saw for any need you have.
The most common type of power saw is the chainsaw, used to cut down timber. They work well if you need to trim your trees or cut them down for firewood. One drawback of chainsaws is that the cut is often ragged so there is a great deal of splintering.
Circular saws are used for a variety of home improvement projects. They are very versatile, so it is a great choice if you don’t want to have to purchase several saws that you only use occasionally. Circular saws are powerful enough to cut through the very thick wood. Make sure you choose one that has a high level of power and comes with the on/off location in an easy to reach location in the event you need to turn it off in a hurry.
A miter saw is a type of circular saw that works well for crosscutting. It is used to cut at exact angles, dimensions, and lengths. For very detailed work, a scroll saw works great. These are both very common tools used in woodworking.
A saber saw works well to cut paneling and other thin, flexible materials. It is commonly referred to as a jigsaw. You want one that is sturdy and fits well in your hand. The quality of the saber saw isn’t that important, but the quality of the blades you use in one is a very important issue that will impact your cuts.
A table saw is used for bigger jobs or long pieces of material. It consists of a table with the saw blade located in the center of the table. This is a great way to have a surface to hold the other end of the material.
A band saw is the best option when you need to cut something in the middle or away from the edge of a piece of material. The band saw has a small table with a very thin blade that comes down from the top. Clamp your material in place to line up with the bland and pull the top part of the band saw down. This is great for cutting out wall plugs and door knobs.
There are several very small power saws as well. The crosscut saw is used when it is necessary to cut across the grain. A rip saw operates similar to a circular saw but it is smaller. A keyhole saw is used to make curved cuts or to put round holes in paneling and drywall.
Saws are very powerful tools. You should always be safety glasses while operating any type of saw. You also need to use any guards that come with the saw for your own protection. Make sure you fully understand how to operate the particular saw you are using. Take some time to investigate the right saw to use for your particular project. Some saws are very versatile and can be used for many different things.
You can enhance your home’s existing concrete surfaces using acid stains, water based stains, epoxy paints, and scoring techniques. If you’re tired of looking at dull gray concrete, there are some fairly easy projects for the serious do-it-yourselfer to give your concrete a refreshing new look. Or perhaps you plan to have some new concrete installed but you don’t want plain gray concrete.
Decorative concrete work costs double to triple that of regular concrete and many people simply can’t afford it. There are inexpensive ways to decorate concrete after it has cured without having to pay skilled tradesmen.
Acid based concrete stains are becoming more and more popular for coloring concrete surfaces. They chemically react with the cementitious material to produce permanent color with variegated or mottled appearance like that of marble. This results in a natural, elegant looking surface. Acid stains are available in 8-10 different colors, mainly brown, green, and reddish earth tones. The cost is normally $60-$70 per gallon which covers 300-400 square feet. A coat of clear concrete sealer when you’re finished really brings out the colors and beauty of acid stains.
Water based concrete stains are an alternative to acid stains and are much more user friendly because they’re much less toxic. These stains don’t chemically react with the concrete; they are absorbed into the surface pores and act like a dye. The big advantage of water based stains is the wide array of colors available. You can find just about any color in the spectrum and create a more vibrant and consistent appearance. They also normally cost about $60-$70 per gallon which covers 300-400 square feet.
If you want to venture beyond the basic staining of concrete, consider using some scoring techniques to create patterns on the surface. You can make your concrete look like a tile floor for example. It’s up to your imagination. An angle grinder with a 4 inch grinding or cutting wheel is the ideal tool for this. The important thing to remember when scoring is to draw the pattern on the concrete first and make sure you’re satisfied with the way it looks because scoring is irreversible. Most people don’t own an angle grinder but you can rent one at almost any tool rental shop.
Epoxy paints make an excellent coating for garage floors and basement floors. Many commercial floors have epoxy coatings because of their durability and resistance to chemical spills as well as their appearance. In recent years, however, it has become very popular for residential use with an increasing availability of different colors. This is not a difficult project, but the key to successful application is surface preparation. Epoxy paints have also become available in a water based form making it safe for the do-it-yourselfer and ideal for indoor applications. They cost a little more than stains. For a 400 square foot garage, you’ll spend about $200 for the materials needed for this project.
Perhaps it’s time for a remodel and updating of your home. How about a remodel that will transform your home, add lasting value, beauty and elegance, and be something you will be proud of? Think about hardwood flooring, Kansas city..
Generally hardwood floors kansas city come pre finished, this is when the manufacturer applies a finish at the factory. This finish is generally at least four coats of ultraviolet cured urethane resin. Hardwood floors are generally easy to clean with a simple sweep of a dust mop or vacuuming. You will need to protect your hardwood floors from scratches as much as possible. Putting protective rugs under your furniture is an excellent way to prevent scratches on the floor. Hardwood floors are meant to last a lifetime.
You will want to choose a color of hardwood floor that will accent your home and home furnishings. As a rule lighter colors go with country, contemporary and casual settings. Darker colored wood floors are for formal or traditional interiors. But, of course, anything goes! Your decision should be based on your visual preference.
Lighter wood would be a white ash, sugar maple or southern yellow pine. Darker colors are beech, birch, red oak, heart pine and mesquite.
You want to make sure that your hardwood floor will be able to withstand denting and wear. Of the woods mentioned above mesquite is the hardest wood, and a southern yellow pine would be the softest. In the middle of these fall the yellow birch, heart pine and beech.
If you are going to be hiring and contractor to install your hardwood floor make sure you ask for references. Go take a look at a floor that he has installed. Make sure that he is comfortable working with the type of wood floor that you want to be installed.
Make sure that you thoroughly inspect the hardwood floor after the installation. Look at the floor from a standing position and with normal lighting. The finish on your floor will not be that you would find on fine furniture. Deep swirls or sander marks or splotchy areas may mean that the floor wasn’t finished properly. There will, however, be some irregularities on any wood floor. However, these irregularities won’t seem obvious and will only add to the character of the floor. For more information you can contact Midland Marble about your hardwood flooring by using our convenient contact us page.
The debate of gay marriages has been a very hot political topic for many years and with being such a hot topic it is almost astounding the number of places that have come out publicly either for or against the topic. While there are few states who allow the idea of a gay or same-sex marriage there are those more liberal affording almost equal rights. Massachusetts is the only state currently in the United States that allows same-sex marriages. The state of Rhode Island is generous enough to recognize as legal marriage any same-sex marriage that is performed in Massachusetts, which is a major victory for many same-sex supporters.
The elections of recent years have seen this as a very hot topic button, and with the White House, stressing that marriage involves a man and a woman only, not same-sexes many states have been very reluctant to allow the same-sex marriages. However, a few states have come forward and allowed same-sex civil unions, which are very similar to a marriage.
These states are California, Hawaii, Maine, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Vermont. The District of Columbia also recognizes same-sex unions and soon the Governor of New Hampshire has stated publicly that he will sign a bill giving the ok to same-sex unions. This is a major victory for those who are supporting the movement.
While many states have not given the green light on the same-sex issue, there are states who are sitting around discussing the issues. Many couples who are fighting for their rights have argued that there is no difference in the way they run their households compared to their heterosexual counterparts. They have also stated that while they may be with a partner who is the same sex as them, they do still love their partner and should have the right to get married.
This has always been a hot topic, and likely will continue to be a hot topic for many years to come. With the issues raging within the states and at the national level it will likely be a very long time before the gay and lesbian rights groups are able to truly declare a victory for their cause. Nevertheless, there is some solace to be taken in the small victories as they occur, and another Governor of a state being willing to allow a civil union is at least a step in the direction towards a victory.
The fact remains that often the views of the individual states tend to reflect the views of the President. With a President in office who is a staunch opponent to the concept of same-sex marriage as well as civil unions it is unlikely to allow much room for many victories until a more accommodating, or rather liberal, President is in the White House.
Once the bill passes all of the channels, it can go into effect as early as next year for the New Hampshire residence who have long been awaiting this victory. With each state that gives this right to its residents, it opens the doors to more states to start becoming more tolerant of all their inhabitants. Finally, this is paving the way for America to join the bulk of Europe in recognizing the legal inequalities between straight and gay couples nationwide.
Basic Kitchen Plans you can use.
The efficient u-shape plan is versatile and usually puts one’s workstation on each of three walls. The pros of this are great storage and counter space on three sides that maximize efficiency but this is not the best plans for entertaining or for accommodating multiple cooks. Major traffic jams in the kitchen! Another thing to consider is you have to have the basic 8×8 foot space and anything less won’t provide the minimum 4 feet work space that is recommended for the center of the room. In a large kitchen for maximum efficiency, locate one workstation in a freestanding island.
The L-shape plan allows two workstations on one wall and the third on an adjacent wall. This layout is much more efficient concerning space than the U-shape plan especially if the main workstations are located close to the bend of the L. The L-shaped plan is not well suited for small kitchen spaces and you need to allow enough open counter space between the two workstations that share the same wall. This is at least four feet. Other things to consider is the arrangement of the workstations which are critical. The work needs to flow from the refrigerator to the sink and then to the stove cooktop and serving area. An ideal eating nook is the area opposite the bend of the L.
The island plan is a popular design because it features a freestanding workstation usually including the sink or stovetop. This is a wonderful plan for large kitchens where the work triangle exceeds the twenty-six foot rule that dictates that for maximum efficiency. Island plans are not well suited in kitchens where two work stations must be on opposite walls. The island is a convenient location for specialty countertops such as butcher block for chopping veggies or marble for rolling out those delectable desserts. Another idea is a rolling island which can roll outside to your patio or deck when entertaining guest. When one end of the island is anchored to a wall or line of cabinets, this is called a peninsula plan. The peninsula kitchen packs all the versatility of island but does not require as much space. Like islands, the peninsula plan gives the cook a workstation and a view into another room rather than just toward a wall. After meal preparation, a peninsula can double as a serving buffet or bar.
The one wall plan is normally seen in smaller homes, vacation homes and apartments. This floor plan is definitely the most space saving but is least efficient for the cook. Normally there is a door at each end which translates into lots of through traffic. This can create quite a few problems as well as frustration for the cook. One wall kitchens work better when the sink is in the center beside the refrigerator and the stovetop. If you have the space, allow four feet of counter space on each side of the sink.
There are more complicated kitchen plans, ask us for details
Ride Safe (The Tools Every Biker Should Have Along for the Ride)
It’s actually quite easy to do routine maintenance on your own bike. And having the right tools for the job can mean the difference between enjoying an all-day ride and having to pack your bike up and head back home when something goes awry. So, what tools do you need to take along for the ride? First and foremost, you should have the tools to repair a flat fire. Next, invest in the tools needed to maintain your chain and brakes.
Bike Survival Kit
A basic bike survival kit should include:
Tire patch kit
Wrenches in various sizes
A more extensive bike survival kit would include:
Solvents specifically designed for bike chains
Things to Check for Before You Hit the Road
Brakes: Ensuring your brakes are working well is vitally important. Make sure you check your pads often to prevent rim damage and to ensure that your bike actually stops when it is supposed to. Adjusting the tension is also important.
Chain: Degrease the chain and re-lube it. Clean rear sprockets with a brush tool.
Gears: Check derailleur gear action and cables. Degrease chain and re-lube. Clean rear sprockets with brush tool.
Pedals: Make sure the axle spins freely. Check bottom bracket axles for looseness.
Steering: Make sure handlebar and stem is tight.
Frame: Check for damage. Make sure the seat is adjusted appropriately for your height.
Wheels: Make sure spokes and nipples are tightened and wheels are trued.
Check tire pressure and condition. If your suspension fork is quick release, make sure they are tightly fastened, and don’t forget to check tire pressure.
Teaching your child to ride a bike is easy with the balance buddy.
A faulty position while sleeping can be the cause for muscular injuries in the cervical spine (neck) area. Being in a prolonged state of poor posture can lead to damages that are more permanent. The cervical spine is very fragile and delicate; it is a very crucial area since it houses the spinal cord that connects the brain to all other aspects of the body. It is also very strong and flexible, which allows movement in all directions. At the same time, this makes it also susceptible to strains and injuries due to poor postures and accidents.
The cervical spine (neck) begins from the base of the head and connects through the upper back area. With this intricate and complex design, it faces the brunt of the most stress even from the normal daily activities, making it at a risk of developing painful conditions. Some of the most common muscular injuries in the cervical lead to injuries like a strain or a sprain. A strain refers to soft-tissue injuries resulting when a muscle-tendon becomes overloaded and stretched causing a tear. A sprain, on the other hand, refers to a ligamentous injury, where the ligaments that connect other facet joints become damaged and injured.
In order to prevent muscle strains or sprains in the cervical spine (neck) area, maintaining a good posture while sleeping is essential to prevent the neck from getting all the stress due to faulty positions. A good custom made organic latex mattress and an organic pillow can make a whole lot of difference to the quality of sleep that one can have. It will help determine how you will feel the next day especially when you wake up. Having a custom made organic latex mattress and pillow just for you, provides your body with maximum support especially while sleeping. It helps promote good posture for your body even as you sleep, making sure to keep your body aligned in a neutral position all throughout the night. Keep occasional neck pains due to sleeping incorrectly away by using custom made latex mattress and organic pillows. The wrong pillow, the wrong mattress may only make matters of neck and body pains so much worse for you, so make sure to invest in a quality mattress and pillow that you can trust to support you properly!